Yoon Bomi’ Poomsae Koryo with the Music.
Goryeo, also known as Koryŏ, was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by King Taejo. This kingdom later gave name to the modern exonym “Korea”. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean Peninsula until it was removed by the founder of the Joseon in 1392. Goryeo expanded Korea’s borders to present-day Wonsan in the northeast (936–943), the Yalu River (993) and finally almost the whole of the Korean Peninsula (1374).
Two of this period’s most notable products are celadon pottery and the Tripitaka Koreana—the Buddhist canon (Tripiṭaka) carved onto roughly 80,000 woodblocks and stored (and still remaining) at Haeinsa. Subjects and officials of Goryeo also created the world’s first metal-based movable type in 1234; the oldest surviving movable metal type book, the Jikji, was printed in 1377.
In 668, Silla conquered Baekje and Goguryeo with an alliance with Tang China, but by the late 9th century it was tottering, its monarchs being unimaginative and pressed by the power of powerful statesmen. Many robbers and outlaws agitated and in 900Gyeon Hwon revolted from Silla control in the Jeolla region as the state of Later Baekje; the year after, Gung Ye revolted from the northern regions as Taebong. A son of a regional lord, Wang Geon, joined Taebong as a general.
Taebong fell when Wang Geon revolted and killed Gung Ye in 918; he was crowned Taejo of Goryeo in June of the same year. Silla was overpowered by Goryeo and Later Baekje and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. In 936, Later Baekje surrendered and Goryeo subsequently maintained an unbroken dynasty that ruled Korea for 474 years.
By the 14th century, Goryeo had lost much of its power due to the Mongols and their Yuan dynasty. Although King Gongminmanaged to free his kingdom from the Yuan overlordship, General Yi Seonggye revolted and overthrew King Gongyang in 1392, establishing himself as Taejo of Joseon. Gongyang was killed in 1394.